Keysight Application Note :: Power of Impedance Analyzer - Comparison to Network Analyzer.
Keysight's impedance analyzers are the only instruments on the market that can provide unparalleled accuracy for component evaluation from mΩ to MΩ and from 20 Hz to 3 GHz frequency range. Uncover real characteristics of high-quality components. This application note describes why realcharacteristics evaluation is essential and how to achieve real-characteristics measurements using impedance analyzer.
Necessity of Real-Characteristics Evaluation
The real-characteristics in this document mean characteristics of electrical devices, materials and components under actual conditions such as frequency, signal level, DC bias and temperature. Characteristics should be known reliably and accurately. Although the components meet manufacturer's speciications, they exhibit different characteristics when they are integrated in a circuit. The problems are sometimes due to the fact that the test conditions of the standard speciications offered by the manufacturer do not correspond to the actual operating conditions under which the part is used. In addition, characteristics which are not covered in the speciications often inluence the performance of the circuit, and may be unknowingly relied upon for proper operation. In most cases, due to the inlexibility of the measurement system, the conditions under which components are tested and selected are different from the conditions when the components are in operation.
To design a high quality circuit, the characteristics of its components and printed circuit boards (PCBs) under actual operating conditions must be known. That is, the characteristics of components and PCBs depend on the conditions (frequency, signal level, temperature, etc.) under which they are used or measured. For manufactures of electronic devices or components, it is necessary to evaluate the materials or components used in their products under actual operating conditions..........
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